There is no other meaning and the church fathers built from this meaning spiritually. What exactly Jesus meant by this is a question of exegesis and not of grammar. Given this, other interpretations of the Biblical text are possible. I should know more about St. Gregory but I’m not an expert, either. What is the rock? 7 Yes, you who trust him recognize the honor God has given him. I am an Orthodox catechumen, so my answer may not be perfect. Matthew 16:18 AMPC And I tell you, you are Peter [Greek, Petros–a large piece of rock], and on this rock [Greek, petra–a huge rock like Gibraltar] I will build My church, and the gates of Hades (the powers of the infernal region) shall not overpower it [or be strong to its detriment or hold out against it]. Matthew 16:18. I have an older ‘little Liddell’ as well as an older ‘middle Liddell’ and while there is a difference between the two under “ΠΕΤΡΑ” (the former is truncated), they each specifically point out a difference between the masculine and feminine, though the latter is more detailed and explicit. 7:40-44). Earlier I’d mentioned that sometimes in PPs a concrete noun is anarthrous when it is a definite noun, whereas other times it is arthrous. You are assuming an English grammatical mindset. I can understand the preference for a supreme head – it’s certainly easier to understand, and in many other circumstances I would prefer it (I’m as monarchist as they come in my political beliefs). If you ask any priest who doesn’t know you, he will tell you that this is church doctrine and give you a theological explanation. But, then again, in John 1:42 we have Jesus saying to him, “You will be called Cephas” upon first calling him (with the narrator defining the term as Petros); however, we don’t know if this means ‘from now on’, or ‘at some point in the future’. This is the foundation of our understanding of the papacy. . Maybe this is a faulty presumption; but, at the same time, I don’t think we can definitively state that it is arthrous because petra is definite as opposed to indefinite. 6, Sermon 229P.1, p. 327). In this case, the definite article is used. Matthew 16:18. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Pingback: Saints Peter and Paul: Apostles to the Protestants? Right. Contrary to what I said, the word that referred to stone as a monumental building material in the Bible was more commonly λίθος. Supremacy, no. I can’t argue with the Greek. [d] But for those who reject him, “The stone that the builders rejected Btw, the author is me, and it’s okay to refer to me in the second person. I’ve shown in several ways why it’s unlikely that Peter’s name being Πέτρος was meant to equate him with a Homeric πέτρος, in contrast to the πέτρα with which he’s juxtaposed here: that word πέτρος was an archaic word no longer in common use; Πέτρος is a standard masculinization of the feminine πέτρα. And, being a carpenter like His earthly father Joseph, it would seem possible He and Joseph knew Greek in order to sell their handiwork to the Greeks. Did he want to declare that Peter was not a πέτρα, but rather a rock of a different sort — as I have often heard Protestants claim he meant by calling him πέτρος? But if that were the case, why the wordplay on Peter’s name? This Greek wordplay appears to be a direct contradiction to the assumption that Jesus taught in Hebrew. It was called “κοινη” for a reason–that it was the lingua franca of the day. In Aramaic you can use kepha in both places in Matthew 16:18. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. The OC has no one with such authority. Briefly, you’re assuming Markan priority, while I’m not. Bible in Basic English 16:18 And I say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock will my church be based, and the doors of hell … Assuming all the html tags are rendered properly, I’ve bolded the relevant portion: ΠΈΤΡΑ, Ion. Peter himself explains in 1 Peter the 2nd chapter what Matthew 16:18 means. What is the Greek meaning of “this” in Matthew 16:18? To this point, note the response of some apparent Jews to Jesus Aramaic cry on the Cross (Mark 15:34)—they misunderstood him as calling Elijah. Thus Simon is the rock upon which the Church will be built by Jesus. σίαν καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς, ואף אני אמר אליך כי אתה פטרוס ועל הסלע הזה אבנה את קהלתי ושערי שאול לא יגברו עליה׃, ܐܦ ܐܢܐ ܐܡܪ ܐܢܐ ܠܟ ܕܐܢܬ ܗܘ ܟܐܦܐ ܘܥܠ ܗܕܐ ܟܐܦܐ ܐܒܢܝܗ ܠܥܕܬܝ ܘܬܪܥܐ ܕܫܝܘܠ ܠܐ ܢܚܤܢܘܢܗ ܀, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Nestle 1904, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Westcott and Hort 1881, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Westcott and Hort / [NA27 and UBS4 variants], ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Greek Orthodox Church, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Tischendorf 8th Edition, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894, ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18 Greek NT: Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550. If you wish to overturn the two-millenia textual tradition, you’d better have a little more than niggling over a missing ὁ. It’s not exactly clear when Simon was named Peter. Matthew 16:18. In Matthew 16:18, the word Jesus used for "church" is ekklesia (Strong's #1577), and it is so translated in the King James Version 115 times. The Church, therefore, which is founded in Christ received from Him the keys of the kingdom of heaven in the person of Peter, that is to say, the power of binding and loosing sins. The conclusion that every man and woman born into the human race has to make at one time or another, is the answer to the eternally significant question, what think ye of Christ, who do you say He is? If people only sit down and talk to each other, I think a lot of the anger will abate. I pray for unity, but after 1600 years, we really do need the intervention of the holy Spirit. What’s more, you are his holy priests.Through the mediation of Jesus Christ, you offer spiritual sacrifices that please God. Tellingly, no Greek-speaker raised such an argument as this at any time in the first millennium of the Church; it’s only been raised by English-speakers in the last two centuries. chosen for great honor, I have been digging and researching in the lexica and their references and it appears my statement about the lack of distinction in classical Greek was incorrect. Whatever you bind on earth shall also be bound in heaven; whatever you loose on earth shall also be loosed in heaven’ (Mt 16:15-19). But suppose we presume that. Yes, there are different interpretations among the Fathers. Jesus had asked the disciples who they said he was: John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, some other prophet? First, I’d like to say that I like your explanation in the last paragraph above for a possible reason for the use of Πέτρος as a move from the first-declension feminine to the second-declension masculine in order to accommodate the new name for Simon. Another prominent figure in the church, the late head of a monastery, Father Matthew the Poor, wrote many books, some of which contradicted books written by the Pope. I think this is a stretch. 17:21). I’m not enough of a grammarian to draw meaning from the mere absence of the article. But right off I can’t think of anything I feel inclined to oppose or criticize. Here, He calls Peter a rock suitable to be part of that foundation. I also read statements from other scholars that by the New Testament, there was not much of a distinction between πέτρος and πέτρα and that the words were used interchangeably (cf. The Catholic Church wants history to remember it as being that. c. 1611. Of course, Paul would use this word as a collective for Christians at a given locale in his epistles. I currently go to an Antiochian Church in Memphis. To use the Matthew 16:18 passage as the be-all of Catholic reliance on Scripture and tradition, ... in Greek, which means literally the community that has been called out). The reason he doesn’t here is because to Matthew, and to his earliest readers, it wasn’t ambiguous. By all appearances, judging by the New Testament and later Koine literature, the common noun πέτρος had fallen into disuse. Matthew 16:18(ESV) Verse Thoughts. refers to the Church)], καὶ [and] πύλαι [(the) gates] ἅδου [of hades] οὐ [negative particle, not] κατισχύσουσιν [3rd person plural future active, will overpower] αὐτῆς [it]. Therefore clearly, Jesus wasn’t referring to the same rock in both cases, so the argument goes. Was it Gregory I think who basically had to step in and run the city to keep it from being completely annihilated? . It would be interesting to have her view. The late pope HH Shenouda III, when he was a lay leader, thought the Apostle’s Fast should be only 12 days long. Thus, it seems reasonable to view the term as “assembly”, but Jesus’ particular assembly, i.e., Christ-followers. If we assume an emphatic “You are Peter” and if we assume that Jesus meant that Peter was the petra in the PP, then why didn’t this anarthrous use carry over into the PP? To say it can be interpreted only the catholic way is nothing short of blind loyalty. If a Coptic Orthodox Church member marries in another church, the official position is that they can’t take communion anymore. Well, I’m sure you know where the Orthodox stand on this. You’ll have to excuse my ignorance, as well as my presumption to speak for the Church. New American Standard Bible "I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. See, that’s one of the things I wasn’t sure about, and don’t really understand. Read More of Matthew 16. I pray that the Chalcedonian and the non-Chalcedonian Orthodox can achieve reunion. Marble background texture by Seamless Pixels. I have stuck only to the grammar of the Scripture, and I say again, it simply cannot be understood the way you want to understand it. Scripture tooltips are provided by the Sacred WordPress Plugin, copyright © 2014 by Joseph T. Richardson, via the BibleSearch API, copyright © 2014 by the American Bible Society. What “ample evidence” is there that Jesus would have taught in Greek, or that he even knew Greek? If you accept the interpretation of Matthew 16:17-19 that I’ve supported here, what does that entail for you? 17:1 + So πέτρα is the only possible Greek word he could used for the second clause of his statement. I was ignorant of this whole controversy and the split at Chalcedon. At Matthew 16:17-18 (NASB) we read a conversation between Peter and Jesus. I said nothing of “the Catholic way.” I said “this cannot be interpreted except as a (singular) declaration of Peter’s authority.” And it cannot. Do you feel able to express dissent? He is the chief cornerstone. For this, I know, is the Rock on which the Church is built! And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. By the time of the writing of the Gospels, Πέτρος had probably been Peter’s Greek name for several decades. His faith? I have an Orthodox-convert friend (he’s commented a few times here; in fact, he just commented below while I was typing this) and he acknowledges that Peter was the prime Apostle — but he pointed out that the Orthodox claim Peter as the first bishop (or patriarch) of Antioch, too (and the Liber Pontificalis acknowledges as much) — though the See of Antioch doesn’t really exist anymore and there are half a dozen churches that claim to be its rightful successor. Comparatively, we find the arthrous σκοτία in 1:5, first in a PP (dative), then arthrous again as a nominative. What do you wish your churches would address theologically that they are not? With churches, we tend to go into our little enclaves and not associate with others. Matthew 16:18 Greek Study Bible (Apostolic / Interlinear) καγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς. .” The episode would not make any sense if Jesus had said, “I rename you Peter, a steadfast Rock; and on this (other) rock I will build my Church.”. Matthew 16:18 KJV And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. How you interpret that (the statement that Peter is the Rock) is up for debate. An object can be demonstrative and definite or it can be demonstrative and indefinite. Thus the textual evidence suggests that Aramaic, not Greek, was the Lord’s everyday language and the language He taught in. ; π. σύνδρομοι, ξυμπληγάδες, of the rocky islets of the Bosporus, Pind., Eur. The point of departure for most people is the Second Vatican Council (1965–1968), a.k.a. It’s not exactly clear when Simon was named Peter. If there is a distinction between them at all, it is between petra, a great mass of rock, and petros, stone as a monumental building material — for building, say, a Church. And, in John’s Gospel—which is recognized more and more as being more ‘Jewish’ than ‘Greek’—both Kepha and Messias are translated by the narrator. I will build my assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. There is no reason to think Jesus was singling Peter out. What does it mean to you that Christ made of Peter a foundation stone for the Church? The entire chapter Matthew 16 interlinear (Greek/English), translated word by word and with Greek grammar parsing codes, free online ... Matthew 16:18. As I was reading, I appreciated the fact that you exegeted from the Greek; however, I must make one correction. Further, there is no evidence, beyond the assertion itself, that the meanings of petros and petra are as distinct as Protestants argue. And I tell you that you are Peter, 16:18 The Greek word for Peter means rock. This is just as powerful a declaration as the one you want to quibble over. The church for which I am not speaking is the Coptic Orthodox Church. He was aware of this, and He was especially concerned that His disciples knew who He was. It was at least as old as the Gospel of Mark and probably older. To do anything major we need a council, too; last one was Vatican II in 1962–1965; last one before that was Vatican I in 1868; last one before that was Trent in 1545–1563. It appears, then, that the masculine form πέτρος, as a word for “a stone,” had generally fallen into disuse in Koine Greek by the New Testament era. Matthew 16:18 English Standard Version (ESV). I’ve been busy with work and family concerns. All four Gospels and the Book of Acts refer to him as that. Though I don’t intend on engaging on 16:19, I do think one must consider the similar verbiage found in 18:18 in one’s analysis of 16:19. I have been told by a Protestant theologian that the Armenian and Assyrian Orthodox Churches developed a theology that did not require this in a situation where they were reaccepting many people who had been under the influence of Protestant missionaries, but that it occurred at a time when the Coptic Church was isolated from these other churches. Matthew the Poor continued to write and sell his books, but out of deference to the Pope he sold them only out of the monastery. (Jno. In any case, you are now agreeing that this is an exegetical issue rather than a grammatical issue. Catholics seem to have an unhealthy devotion to institution instead of having faithfulness to God who is responsible for the sending of His Son Jesus. If we agree that Matthew meant to say that Jesus was building His Church on a solid foundation of stone, then it is at best unclear what he meant by the wordplay between Πέτρος and πέτρα — only that he meant it — and any question of the meaning becomes more a exegetical and theological one than a grammatical or lexicographical one. Peter does have authority, but a sacramental authority shared in common by all bishops, not a prerogative to overrule others or to set himself and his successors up as universal bishops. So when it came to penning Matthew 16:18 — if we assume, for the sake of argument, the Catholic interpretation, that Jesus intended to draw a parallel between “you are Peter” and “on this rock” — he had, perhaps, several choices: Now, to take the opposing viewpoint: Suppose Matthew did intend to create some distinction in his wordplay between Πέτρος, Simon Peter, and πέτρα, the bedrock on which Jesus would build His Church. On this Rock: An Analysis of Matthew 16:18 in the Greek, Falling fron Grace (Grace and Justification), Was Peter Really the First Pope? For the Rock (Petra) was Christ; and on this foundation was Peter himself built. But, yes, it’s possible, and maybe even likely, that the anarthrous Petros was to indicate emphasis. I was just thinking of you in my response to the comment above, and you replied while I was typing it. Matthew 16:18-19 AMPC And I tell you, you are Peter [Greek, Petros–a large piece of rock], and on this rock [Greek, petra–a huge rock like Gibraltar] I will build My church, and the gates of Hades (the powers of the infernal region) shall not overpower it [or be strong to its detriment or hold out against it]. I apologize for the delay in my response. It could refer to an idea but not a person. It contains no implication at all of sacredness or holiness.. Ultimately for the Orthodox it comes down to whether a bishop is in communion with the other bishops. Πέτρος was Peter’s name, not Πέτρας, not Πέτρινος or Πετρώοδης or Πετραῖος. Matthew 16:18. The fruitful soil of Rome, when it receives the pure seed of the Lord, bears fruit an hundredfold . Even more so, why the wordplay without any clarification of the ambiguous metaphor? Even if there is a difference—as per LSJ—then it would seem to me, that petros would be appropriate in the PP, for, once again, Peter (and each successor) is recognized by the RCC as the supreme authority over the Church. Pharisees and Sadducees (16:1–12) Verse 1 His peace be with you. Curiously though, this use of πέτρος in the sense of “stone” does not continue to the New Testament. I prefer this because it makes things move at a glacial place and prevents novel ideas from entering into Church doctrine. So there is unity in terms of doctrine and practice. To put it into archaic English (since modern English no longer has a singular form of you), He says, “I say unto thee, thou art Peter…” The entire statement, in its pronouns, nouns, and verbs, is explicitly singular. Footnotes: Matthew 16:18 The Greek word for Peter means rock. My larger point here, which I didn’t make explicit, is the presence of the arthrous petra juxtaposed with the anarthrous P[/p]etros. And this Church, symbolized in its generality, was personified in the Apostle Peter, on account of the primacy of his apostleship. See also: Early Testimonies to St. Peter’s Ministry in Rome. But when πέτρα is used of a person in the NT, each and every time that person is Christ. And one more time, all together: this time cribbed so you can understand it. His confession? Aramaic was not as advanced a language as the other semitic languages. If we agree that Matthew meant to say that Jesus was building His Church on a solid foundation of stone, then it is at best unclear what he meant by the wordplay between Πέτρος and πέτρα — only that he meant it — and any question of the meaning becomes more a exegetical and theological one than a grammatical or lexicographical one. Blog text is copyright © 2011–2014 by Joseph T. Richardson. I think this is a wonderful and vibrant parish and I’m so glad to be here. The house is made up of the living stones which was Israel & the modern church along with the apostles. The original post stands on more than this one turn of phrase. The name “Peter” — Petros in Greek, Petrus in Latin — translates as “Rock.” Jesus is giving Simon a new name, Peter or Rock, in reference to his firmness or steadfastness. For the record, I’m an evangelical to Catholic convert, Suleyman (Tyson) is an evangelical to Antiochian Orthodox convert, and Jessica is Anglo-Catholic with affinities for both Catholicism and Orthodoxy. If the argument then is that the intention was to convey “foundation” (as in πέτρα), then it becomes circular. The Greek word petra is feminine. As can be seen, Petros is largely preceded by the article. Hades is just another Greek god - the mythological god of the underworld. Generally, Bible scholars tell us this means “rock.” I’m not an Aramaic expert, but according to Marcus Jastrow’s Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud, and Midrashic Literature (London: Luzac, 1903), the word כיפא‎ is generally translated “a rock, stone, ball” — and there is not another Aramaic word defined that means “stone”, and no other word to make a distinction between a bedrock and a smaller rock. Not continue to the words seem, rather, to be nearly synonymous jurisdictions ( including a host of national! Is an exegetical issue rather than a grammatical issue ” is greatly disturbing & vastly inhibits his.. Is made of these churches and there are many people who collected his books in the comments that is! Peter out never pronounced as infallible, has never needed to be nearly.! Use Πέτρας really know what to do corresponds with great beauty to the apostles to. Anarthrous petros was to indicate emphasis of sacredness or holiness as I follow no leader save Christ, you ll. 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